Egypt as a great nation affected the world in different dimensions. Their legacies are outstanding and should be noted down.
The question that will come from this topic is: “What are the legacies of Egypt? How did Egyptian legacies affect the whole world? Using Egyptian civilizations, debunk the Eurocentric views on African civilizations. These are one of the major questions that will will come out from this topic. I will do well by answering the first one which is the legacy of Egyptian.
1. Distribution Of Glass Making Technique Abroad: A major contribution of Egypt to the world civilization was the distribution of glass making techniques abroad. Glass making was discovered independently in Asia and the Nile. But it was the Egyptian who propagated the spread of glass working techniques abroad. The Egyptian polychromatic glass vases, on the form called Alabaster, spread throughput the Mediterranean area. They were copied by the Phonecians, who developed their manufacturer into an industry ; and it was the Egyptian glass maker who invented the blown glass in the Hellenistic period. From then on Alexandra became the main center of the manufacture of glass ware. Glass product form Alexandria were exported to far as China.
2. Production Of Papyrus: Another very significant industries also invented by the ancient Egyptian was the production of papyrus. The word ‘paper’ was derived from papyrus (Which the Egyptian called paperaa). Egyptian used papyrus Fibre in early architecture until classical architecture took them as a model, their simple or clustered columns, whose capital were shaped like closed or open flowers. Large quantities of papyrus were used to maintain registeres, inventories and libraries. Papyrus was used in Egypt from the time of the first dynasty until the end of the Pharaonic period. It was later adopted by the Greeks, the Romans, the Copt, the Byzantine, the Aramaeans and the Arabs. Schorlers posit that papyrus was unquestionably, one of the major legacies bequeathed to civilization by Pharaonic Egypt.
3. Ability In Stone Masonry: A very significant technical contribution of ancient Egypt to her world was their tradition and abilities stone masonry. It was their search for stone to build their monuments that contributed to the spread of Egyptian techniques to Asia and the rest of Africa. Egyptian developed sophisticated quarrying techniques for different kind of stone.
4. Building Large Ships: The Egyptian expertise in wood working is brilliantly manifestated in their ability to build large ships the Egyptian ship was capable of plying the farthest maritime routes opened up in the Pharoahs whether on the Mediterranean direction of Palestine, Syria, Cyprus and Crete or in the Red Sea towards the distant.
5. Making Of Tools: Egyptian were very skilled at making tools. They made knives with incurvate blade, carved stone vases even with the hardest variety or stone. Their stone carving techniques later passes to the Mediterranean world. The carvers of the Creten Vases also had something to learn from Egyptians.
6. Skill In Making Sculptor: The Egyptian sculptor skills were subsequently passed on to the sculptor of the Ptolemaic period and was later reflected in the sanctuary of the Roman Empire. Ancient Egyptian knowledge in craft of making stone and copper tool such as axe, chisel, mallet became very useful in building and construction as well as industry. Thus, the techniques used in the processing of metal were easily copied in Sinia and Nubia. In no time, copper became widespread, first in the Nile basin and then beyond. The women also contributed their quarter to the development of the Egyptian civilization by spinning the linen with great skills. One of the special characteristic of the spinning was that it produced thread of great length.
7. Mummification: It is shown that the mastery of the Egyptian to a number of science, including physics, medicine and surgery made them to have a very good state of preserving human bodies called ‘Mummification’. The Egyptian discovered the chemical characteristics of Natrun – a substance found in certain areas of Egypt. The compound of Natrun, have been analysed in modern times as a mixture of sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, salt and sodium sulphate. These substances proved helpful in the preservation of human body.
8. Bone Surgery: The Egyptian influence in surgical operation technique cannot be overemphasized. It is cogent to note that the knowledge acquired from Mummification was critical to the development of surgical technique by the Egyptians. Ancient Egyptians had good knowledge in bone surgery and external pathology. The Egyptian adopted a methodical approach in their treatment of all kind of ailments. It is, therefore, fair to assume that the skills of surgeons of ancient Egypt was handed on gradually in Africa as well as Asia.
9. Mathematics: Ancient Egyptian made extensive use of mathematics in both their construction and sculptural work. Accurate measurements were required to construct their enormous architectural and sculptural monuments. Egyptian mathematics were categorized under three headings, namely, Arithmetic, Algebra and Geometry. Arithmetic for example were used to solve the material problems pertaining to the administration of Egyptian society. On geometry, the Greek writers, Herodotus and Strabo, both subscribed to the view that geometry was invented by Egyptians.
10. Architecture: In the field of architecture, the ancient Egyptians made very significant contribution such as application of mathematical knowledge to architectural project. Beginning with the use of mud briefly, the ancient Egyptians architecture was among the first to use hewn stone in the construction work. Egypt developed wide range of architectural forms. The pyramid reflects clearly the unique and powerful innovation. The Giza pyramid is one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.
11. Astronomy: Some other areas which the Egyptians affected the world was through astronomy. The Egyptian calender was divided into three seasons of four months, each one having thirty days. Apart from the Civil calendar, the Egyptians also used a religious, luner calendar and were also to predict the moon’s phase with adequacy.
12. System Of Writing: Culturally, the Egyptian also impacted the world. They developed hieroglyphics writing system. Most of the symbols for this writing were derived from local environment. This was an original creation not a borrowed one. Their mode of expression was pictorial. The ancient Egyptian also invented the tool of writing with which they produced an extensive literature dating g to Pharoanic times. The most extensive and important class of documentary material which has survived today comprises the papyri written in hieroglyphic, hieratic and demotic script. It is held by the British museum.
Conclusively, be that as it may, the critical and cogent point to note is that as a result of necessity and peculiarity of the location Egypt, there was the birth of several inventions which transformed Egypt and the world in general. Egypt became the cradle of civilization as a result of the challenges her environment posed. Her civilizations became also a point of her relationship with other nations of the world.
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